Strategic orthodoxy is rightly about focus, alignment, and tough choices. Trying to achieve incompatible goals can lead to tensions, contradictions, and loss of advantage. Yet, the rules of competition are changing. There is a select group of companies around the world that have managed to transcend conventional categories and contradictions to develop strategies that deliver competitive advantage and outstanding performance. We call these “Janus strategies”, after the Roman god Janus who surveys two or more directions simultaneously. These organizations include Toyota, Narayana Health, Singapore Airlines, Apple Inc, and NASA. Based on in-depth case research and decades of engagement, this book outlines how these organizations accomplished Janus strategies while others such as Xerox failed to do so.